Document Type : Research Paper


Assistant Professor, Department of Petroleum Engineering, Masjed Soleiman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Masjed Soleiman, Iran


Among the different operating parameters that must be carefully controlled during the drilling operation, penetration of drilling mud into the permeable zone of formations is one of the essential ones that can have a destructive effect on the productive zone. Thus, the current investigation concentrates on investigating the effects of different nanoparticles (NPs), namely SiO2, CuO, and ZnO, considering their size, type, and concentration (0.2 to 2 wt % for each nanoparticle) on the properties of the drilling fluid, including rheology and high- and low-temperature filtration. NPs can improve the rheological properties of the mud by changing the friction coefficient favorably. Moreover, the effects of temperature and pressure as two critical thermodynamic parameters are examined. The results show that it is possible to enhance the rheological properties (viscosity) of the drilling mud to a maximum value of about 20 % if NPs with a concentration of 2 wt % are added to the drilling fluid. Extreme gel strength will lead to high pump initiation pressure to break circulation after the mud is in a static condition for some time. The results reveal that reducing the gelation properties of the drilling mud is possible using low concentrations of NPs. Moreover, the results reveal that SiO2 and ZnO exhibit a lower filtration rate than CuO. Finally, the effects of temperature and pressure were investigated, which revealed that regardless of the reductive effect of NPs (reducing the filtration rate from 17.7 to about 10 cm3), increasing the pressure and temperature lead to an increase in the filtration rate (reducing the filtration rate from 67 to 35 cm3). Further, the rheological properties of the mud remain relatively constant.


  • Investigation of the effect of nanomaterial such as nono-SiO2, nano-Cu, and nano-Zn on filtration properties of drilling fluid under both high pressure/high temperature (HP/HT) and low pressure/low temperature (LP/LT) conditions;
  • Investigating the effect of nanomaterials on the reduction of filtration and loss of drilling fluid in high- and low-temperature conditions;
  • Investigating the thickness of the mud cake due to the presence of nanoparticles;
  • Experimental study of nano-drilling fluid based on nanotechnology.


Main Subjects

Abdo, J., and Haneef, M.D., Clay NPs Modified Drilling Fluids for Drilling Deep Hydrocarbon Wells. Applied Clay Science, Vol.86, p.76–82, 2013.
Ahmadi, A., Mousavi, M. H., Nourshargh, M. 2019. Investigating The Effect of Nano-silica on The Reduction of Hydration of Shale During Spontaneous Imbibition with Water-based Mud Drilling, Journal of Oil and Gas Exploration and Production.
Ahmadi, B., Shahbazi K., Review of The Effect of NPs on The Rheology and Filtration Properties of Water-based Mud, International Conference on Engineering Research and Innovation, 2018.
Aramendiz, J., Abdulmohsin, I., Silica and Graphene Oxide Nanoparticle Formulation to Improve Thermal Stability and Inhibition Capabilities of Water-based Drilling Fluid Applied to Woodford Shale, SPE Drill & Compl, Vol. 35, No.02, p.164–179,2020,
Baird, J. C., Walz, J. Y., The Effects of Added NPs on Aqueous Kaolinite Suspensions: II. Rheological Effects, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 306, No. 2, p.411–420, 2007.
Darley, H., Gray, G. R., Composition and Properties of Drilling and Completion Fluids, Gulf Professional Publishing,5Ed, 1988.
Fakoya, M.F., Shah, S.N., Rheological Properties of Surfactant-based and Polymeric Nanofluids, Paper SPE 163921 Presented at SPE/ICOTA Coiled Tubing and Well Intervention and Exhibition, Woodlands, Texas, USA, 26–27 March 2013.
Gbadamosi, A. O., Junin, R., Abdalla, Y., Oseh, J., Experimental Investigation of The Effects of Silica Nanoparticles on Hole Cleaning Efficiency of Water-based Drilling Mud, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Vol.172, p.1226–1234,2018.
Hamida, T., Kuru, E., Pickard, M., Filtration Loss Characteristics of Aqueous Waxy Hull-Less Barley (WHB) Solutions, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Vol. 72, p.33–41, 2010.
Kim, K.M., Kim, H.M., Lee, W.J., Lee, C.W., Kim, TI., Lee, J.K., Jeong, J., Paek, S.M., and Oh, J.M., Surface Treatment of Silica NPs for Stable and Charge Controlled Colloidal Silica, International Journal of Nanomedicine, Vol.9, No. 2, p.29–40, 2014.
Li, Y., Kroger, M., and Liu, W.K., Nanoparticle Geometrical Effect on Structure, Dynamics and Anisotropic Viscosity of Polyethylene Nanocomposites. M Acromolecules, Vol.45, No.4, p.2099‌ 2112, 2012.
Srivatsa, J. T., Ziaja, M. B., An Experimental Investigation on Use of NPs as Fluid Loss Additives in A Surfactant-polymer based Drilling Fluids, International Petroleum Technology Conference, 2012.
Vryzas, Z., Mahmoud, O., Nasr-El-Din, H.A., and Kelessidis, V.C., Development, and Testing of Novel Drilling Fluids Using Fe 2O3 And Sio2 NPs for Enhanced Drilling Operations. Paper IPTC 18381 Presented at International Petroleum Technology Conference, Doha, Qatar, 6–9 December 2015.
Wrobel, S., Development of an Improved Nanoparticle-Modified Water-based Drilling Fluid. Master’s Thesis, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway, 2016.
Xuan, Y., Jiang, G., Li, Y., Nanographite Oxide as Ultrastrong Fluid-Loss-control Additive in Water-based Drilling Fluids, Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, Vol.35, p.1386–1392, 2014.
Zakaria, M. F., Husein, M., and Hareland, G., Novel Nanoparticle-based Drilling Fluid Reveals Improved Characteristics, Journal of Petroleum Technology, Vol.11, p.100–102, 2012.