Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, 61357-83151, Iran

2 Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, 61357-83151, Iran


Fin-pass rolls are the latest series of rolls in electric resistance welding (ERW) pipe production lines that form the sheets to tubular shape and adjust the edges of the sheet for welding. The rolls (made of AISI 8622 steel) lose their proper function after about 10 years of operation due to severe wear and change of their original surface profile. The worn portions were removed by grinding and replaced by an AISI D2 high carbon steel ring to repair these rolls. After a short time of service (about one year), the edge of the repair ring was exposed to severe spalling and fracture. The present study investigated the causes of the rapid failure of the AISI D2 repair ring and proposed a solution to the problem. The surface morphology, hardness, and wear resistance were studied. Moreover, the stress analysis of fin-pass rolls was studied using ABAQUS 6.14 finite element software for the closer investigation of the failure mechanism. The leading cause of spalling was the inherent brittleness of the AISI D2 steel and the presence of a high-stress concentration at the edges of the repair ring. To overcome this problem, carburized AISI P20 steel, case hardened AISI 4140 steel, and hard chromium electroplated AISI 4140 steel were replaced, and the resulting properties were studied. The highest resistance to spalling and wear occurred with carburized AISI P20 steel because of the high surface hardness and the gradual increase of toughness from the surface to the depth in the carburizing process, increasing the wear resistance and retarding the growth of fatigue cracks.


  • The repair of the fin-pass roller using repair rings and its failure mechanism are investigated;
  • The stresses on fin-pass rollers are studied using the finite element simulation method;
  • The optimization of repair ring materials and their wear behavior is studied.


Main Subjects

Budzakova, E., Dune, D., Law, M., The Performance of an Emergency Cold Weld Repair on A 2.25Cr-1Mo Longitudinally Seam Welded Pressure Vessel, Mater. Forum, Vol.27, p.45–53,2004.
Cavaliere, P., Crack Tip Plasticity in Plastically Graded Ni–W Electrodeposited Nanocrystalline Alloys, Comput. Mater. Sci. Vol.41–4, p.440–449, 2008, DOI:10.1016/J.Commatsci.2007.05.007.
Christopher, A.,  Luzin, A.V., Travis, S., Howard, G., Andrew, A., And A Mechanical Performance and Residual Stress of WC-Co Coatings Manufactured by Kinetic Metallization, Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol.421, p.27–35,2021.
Clarke, AJ., Speer, JG., Miller, MK., Hackenberg, RE., Edmonds, DV., Matlock, DK., Rizzo, C., Clarke, KD., Moorf, ED., Carbon Partitioning To Austenite From Martensite Or Bainite During The Quench and Partition (Q&P) Process. Acta Mater. Vol.56, No.1, p.16–22, 2008, DOI:10.1016/J.Actamat.2007.08.051.
Cleiton, CS., Victor, HC., Cícero, DA., Moura, RO., Aguiar, WM., Jesualdo PF Evaluation of AISI 4140 Steel Repair without Post-weld Heat Treatment. J. Mater. Eng. Perform, Vol.18, p.324–331, 2009,DOI: 10.1007/S11665-008-9294-5.
Fedrizzi, L., Rossi, S., Bellei, F., Deflorian, F., Wear-corrosion Mechanism of Hard Chromium Coatings, Wear, Vol.253,p.173–1181, 2002, DOI:10.1016/S0043-1648(02)00254-5.
Hotz, H., Kirsch, B., Zhu, T., Smaga, M., Beck, T., Jan, C. Surface Layer Hardening of Metastable Austenitic Steel – Comparison of Shot Peening and Cryogenic Turning, Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 2020, Vol.9, p.16410–16422. Https://Doi.Org/10.1016/J.Jmrt.2020.11.109.
Jiang, J., Li, D., Peng, Y., Li, J., Research on Sheet Deformation in The Cage Roll-forming Process of ERW Round Pipes. J. Mater, Process, Technol, 2009, Vol.209p.4850–4856, DOI:10.1016/J.Jmatprotec.2009.01.011.
Kasaei, MM., Naeini, HM., Tafti, RA., Tehrani, MS., Prediction of Maximum Initial Strip Width in The Cage Roll Forming Process of ERW Pipes Using Edge Buckling Criterion. J. Mater. Process. Technol. Vol.214, No.2, p.190–199. 2014, DOI:10.1016/J.Jmatprotec.2013.08.012.
Kim, N., Kang, B., Lee. S., Prediction and Design of Edge Shape of Initial Sheet for Thick Tube Roll Forming Using Finite Element Method, J. Mater. Process. Technol, Vol.142, p.479–486, 2003,DOI:10.1016/S0924-0136(03)00645-9.
Kiuchi, M., Optimum Design of Fin-rolls and Fin Pass-schedule of Roll Forming of Pipes, Proceedings of Tomorrow Tube-international Conference and Exposition, Birmingham, England, p.459–479, 1986.
Klenk, S., Issler, IA., Shibli, J., Williams, A., Some Characteristics of Weld Repair for Creep Applications, OMMI. Vol.2, p.1–32, 2003.
Li, H., Jiang, Z., Tieu, KA., Sun, W., Analysis Of Premature Failure of Work Rolls in A Cold Strip Plant. Wear, Vol. 263, p.1442–1446, 2007, DOI:10.1016/J.Wear.2007.01.126.
Li, JX., Xie, LY., Wang, JJ., Xiong, JH., Numerical Study of The Forming Process of High-Frequency Welded, Pipe J., Shanghai Jiaotong University, Vol.15, p.236–240, 2010, DOI:10.1007/S12204-010-8131-9.
Lindsay, JH., Decorative and Hard Chromium Plating. Plat. Surf. Finish, Vol.84–8, p.50–51,1997.
Michitoshi, T., Isamu, K., Osamu, S., Outline of New Forming Equipment for Hikari 24__ ERW Mill, Nippon Steel Technical Report,  Vol.90, p.122–126,2004.
Paralikas, J., Salonitis, K., Chryssolouris, G., Investigation of The Effect of Roll Forming Pass Design on Main Redundant Deformations on Profiles from AHSS, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., Vol.56, p.475–491, 2011, DOI:10.1007/S00170-011-3208-7.
Pfeiffer, W., Koplin, C., Reisacher, E., Wenzel JResidual Stresses and Strength of Hard Chromium Coatings, Materials Science, Vol.681, p.133–138, 2011, DOI: 10.4028/Www.Scientific.Net/MSF.681.133.
Premsai, T., Varma, AKV., Sivarajan, S., Failure Analysis Of Rollers In Mill Stand Using Failure Mode Effect Analysis. Int. J. Eng. Sci. Res. Technol, Vol.3, No.7,p.151–159,2014.
Ray, AK., Mishra, KK., Das, G., Chaudhary, PN., Life of Rolls in A Cold Rolling Mill in A Steel Plant Operation Versus Manufacture, Eng. Fail. Anal, Vol.7, p.65–67,2000,DOI:10.1016/S1350-6307(99)00004-7.
Savrai, RA., Osintseva AL Effect Of Hardened Surface Layer Obtained by Frictional Treatment on The Contact Endurance of The AISI 321 Stainless Steel Under Contact Gigacycle Fatigue Tests, Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol.802, p. 140–169, 2021, Https://Doi.Org/10.1016/J.Msea, 2020,140679.
Sunabc, Y.L., Hamelincda, J., Vasileioueq, N., Xiongat, F., Flintag Ob asifj. A. Francisam C. Smith Effects of Dilution on The Hardness and Residual Stresses in Multipass Steel Weldments International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping,  Vol.187, p.104–154, 2020.
Tanasković, D., Đorđević, B., Tatić, U., Sedmak, S., Gajin, M., Cracking Due to Repair Welding of The Treiber Roll. Struct. Integrity Life,  Vol.17, No.2, p.133–138,2017.
Wang, X., Wang, J., Gao, Z., Xia, DH., Hu, W., Fabrication of Graded Surfacing Layer for The Repair of Failed H13 Mandrel Using Submerged Arc Welding Technology, J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol.262, p.182–188, 2018, DOI:10.1016/J.Jmatprotec,2018.06.040.
William, E. B., Pipeline Planning and Construction Field Manual, Elsevier Inc, Chapter 3, p.57–65,2011.
Wu, Q., Sun, DL., Liu, CS., Li, CG. Analysis of Surface and Sub-surface Initiated Spalling of Forged Cold Work Rolls Eng. Fail. Anal., Vol. 14, p.401–410, 2008, DOI:10.1016/J.Engfailanal.2007.01.009.
Yokoyama, E., Toyooka, T., Ejima, A., Yoshimoto, Y., Kawate, T., Kumata, K., Steel Sheet Deformation Behavior and Forming Load Determination in The 26-Inch Cage Forming ERW Pipe Mill. Kawasaki Steel Technical Report, Vol. 4, p.72–83,1981.
Zoran, O., Miodrag, A., Vencislav, G., Mile, D., Investigation of The Repair Welding Technology Using Ni Base Electrode, Adv. Mater. Res. Vol.814, p.25–32, 2013, DOI:10.4028/Www.Scientific.Net/AMR.814.25.