Although experimental studies confirmed the effectiveness of nanoparticles in enhanced oil recovery applications, no comprehensive investigation has been carried out to reveal the effect of different subsurface factors on this improvement. Proper application of nanoparticles mainly depends on their ability to travel long distances within a reservoir without agglomeration, retention and blocking the pore throats. This study strengthens our understanding about the effect of the main subsurface factors on the nanofluid-assisted enhanced oil recovery. For doing so, a transport approach utilizing kinetic Langmuir model is developed and validated using experimental data. Thereafter, the effect of reservoir rock type and its properties (clay content and grain size), salinity of injected fluid, and reservoir temperature on the transport and retention of nanoparticles in porous media in relation to enhanced oil recovery methods is investigated. Since the amount of nanoparticles in the injected fluid and on the rock surface (as deposited) control the mobility and wettability alteration, the effect of subsurface factors and salinity of injected fluid on this deposition is also analyzed. The results showed that the rock type and its properties significantly affect the transport and retention of nanoparticles in porous media. It was also found that the brine salinity has the greatest impact on the amount of nanoparticles deposited on the rock surface. The surface covered by NPs increased from 10 to 82 % after changing salinity from 3 weight percent NaCl to API brine.