Investigation into Mechanism of Hydrogen Induced Cracking Failure in Carbon Steel: A Case Study of Oil and Gas Industry

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, IranMechanical and Industrial Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

2 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

3 Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran

4 Associate Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran, Iran

5 Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Petroleum University of Technology, Abadan, Iran

6 Professor, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

Abstract

Abstract
Although the hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) is recognized as one of the destructive modes for pipeline and component steels serving in sour environments, the behavior of the HIC is still not fully understood. On the other hand, although many efforts have been made to identify the effects of hydrogen on laboratory steel specimens, the study of actual industrial samples has received less attention. In this paper, we have studied the mechanism of the HIC in a damaged pipe of a real case study of the oil and gas industry (finger type slug catcher) using detection, characterization, and microstructural investigation methods. The detection of the HIC in the specimens by advanced ultrasonic techniques, failure analysis using tensile tests, chemical composition analysis, optical microscopy (OM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) techniques and their correlation with the microstructure, type, and morphology of the inclusions were conducted. The results indicated that the value of elements, especially carbon (0.13 wt %) and manganese (1.44 wt %), satisfies the requirement of API 5L specification. Furthermore, the inclusions, such as elongated manganese sulfide and spherical aluminum oxide, and the pearlite grains or the interfaces of the ferrite–pearlite phases played an essential role in the HIC phenomenon as nucleation and propagation places of cracks. It was also observed that HIC cracks were mostly initiated and propagated through the center or near the center of a cross-section of specimens. This region was a segregated zone where the center segregation of elements has occurred. Finally, we recognized a linear correlation between the HIC susceptibility and hardness value in steel, where by moving away from the cracks (1800 µm) to the crack edges, the hardness value increased significantly (179–203 HV), confirming the diffusion of hydrogen into hydrogen traps.

Highlights

  • The mechanism of HIC is studied in a finger type slug catcher using advanced ultrasonic techniques and microstructural investigation methods.
  • The inclusions such as elongated manganese sulfide and spherical aluminum oxide, the pearlite grains, or the interfaces of the ferrite–pearlite phases play an essential role in the HIC phenomenon as nucleation and propagation places of cracks.
  • HIC cracks mostly initiate and propagate through the center of a cross-section of specimens. This region is a segregated zone where center segregation of the elements occurs.
  • A linear correlation between HIC susceptibility and hardness value is recognized in steel, where by moving from distances away from the cracks (1800 µm) to the crack edge, the hardness value increases significantly (179–203 HV), confirming the diffusion of hydrogen into hydrogen traps.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Asadipoor, M., Anaraki, A. P., Kadkhodapour, J., Sharifi, S. M. H., and Barnoush, A., Macro-and Microscale Investigations of Hydrogen Embrittlement in X70 Pipeline Steel by In-situ and Ex-Situ Hydrogen Charging Tensile Tests and In-situ Electrochemical Micro-cantilever Bending Test, Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 772, 138762p, 2020.
Aviles, J. Q., Alonso-Falleiros, N., and De Melo, H. G., Hydrogen Induced Cracking HIC Resistance in HSLA API 5L X65 E 5L X80 Steels, in OTC Brazil, Offshore Technology Conference, October, 2017.
Bai, P. P., Zhou, J., Luo, B. W., Zheng, S. Q., Wang, P. Y., and Tian, Y., Embrittlement of X80 Pipeline Steel in H2S Environment: Effect of Hydrogen Charging Time, Hydrogen-trapped State and Hydrogen Charging–releasing–recharging Cycles, International Journal of Minerals, Metallurgy and Materials, Vol. 27, No.1, p. 63–73, 2020.
Beidokhti, B., Koukabi, AH., Dolati, A., Influences of Titanium and Manganese on High Strength Low Alloy SAW Weld Metal Properties, Mater Charact, Vol. 60, p. 225–33, 2009.
Esteban, P., Calleja, B., Astigarraga, V., and López, A., Stress Corrosion Cracking of Super duplex Stainless Steels for Use in H2S Containing Environments in Oil and Gas Production, in CORROSION 2019, NACE International, May, 2019.
Ghosh, G., Rostron, P., Garg, R., and Panday, A., Hydrogen Induced Cracking of Pipeline and Pressure Vessel Steels, A Review, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, Vol.199, p. 609–618, 2018.
Hejazi, D., Haq, AJ., Yazdipour, N., Dunne, DP., Calka, A., Barbaro, F., and Pereloma, EV., Effect of Manganese Content and Microstructure on The Susceptibility of X70 Pipeline Steel to Hydrogen Cracking, Mater Science Engineering A, Vol. 551, p. 40–49, 2012.
Mahajan, D. K., Singh, V., Arora, K. S., and Singh, R., Hydrogen Induced Blister Cracking and Mechanical Failure in X65 Pipeline Steels, 2019.
Mohtadi-Bonab, MA., Eskandari, M., A Focus on Different Factors Affecting Hydrogen Induced Cracking in Oil and Natural Gas Pipeline Steel, Engineering Failure Analysis, Vol. 79, p. 351–360, 2017.
Mohtadi-Bonab, MA., Szpunar, JA., Basu, R., and Eskandari, M., The Mechanism of Failure by Hydrogen Induced Cracking in an Acidic Environment for API 5L X70 Pipeline Steel, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 40, p.1096–107, 2015.
Moon, J., Choi, J., Han, S. K., Huh, S., Kim, S. J., Lee, C. H., and Lee, T. H., Influence of Precipitation Behavior on Mechanical Properties and Hydrogen Induced Cracking During Tempering of Hot-Rolled API Steel for Tubing, Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol.652, p.120–126, 2016.
Moon, J., Kim, SJ, and Lee, C., Role of Ca Treatment in Hydrogen Induced Cracking of Hot Rolled API Pipeline Steel in Acid Sour Media, Metals and Material International, Vol. 19, p. 45–8, 2013.
Moon, J., Park, C., and Kim, SJ., Influence of Ti Addition on The Hydrogen Induced Cracking of API 5L X70 Hot-rolled Pipeline Steel in Acid Sour Media, Metals and Material International, Vol. 18, p. 613–7, 2012.
Raude, A., Bouchard, M., and Sirois, M., Stress Corrosion Cracking Direct Assessment of Carbon Steel Pipeline Using Advanced Eddy Current Array Technology, in CORROSION 2018, NACE International, 2018.
Roccisano, A., Nafisi, S., and Ghomashchi, R., Stress Corrosion Cracking Observed in Ex-Service Gas Pipelines: A Comprehensive Study, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol.51, No.1, p.167–188, 2020.
Schneider, C., An Investigation into Hydrogen-induced Cracking and Delamination, 2019.
Tetelman, AS., and Robertson, WD., The Mechanism of Hydrogen Embrittlement Observed in Iron-silicon Single Crystals, Transactions of the American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Vol. 224, p. 775–83, 1962.
Venegas, V., Caleyo, F., Herrera, O., Hernández-Sánchez, J., and Hallen, JM., Crystallographic Texture Helps Reduce Hydrogen Induced Cracking in Pipeline Steels, International Journal of Electrochemical Science, Vol. 9, p. 418–25, 2014.
Yu, Z., Chen, J., Yan, H., Xia, W., Su, B., Gong, X., and Guo, H., Degradation, Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior and Cytocompatibility of High Strain Rate Rolled Mg-Zn-Sr Alloys, Materials Letters, Vol.260, p.126920, 2020.
Zapffe, C., and Sims, CE., Hydrogen Embrittlement, Internal Stress and Defects in Steel, Transamerican INS Min Metal Engineering, Vol. 145, p. 225–32, 1941.