Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Gelation Time of Nanostructured Polymer Gels by Central Composite Approach

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Candidate, Faculty of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Sahand New Town, Tabriz, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Sahand New Town, Tabriz, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran


Currently available polymers as a component of in-situ gels are unsuitable for treating high-temperature/high-salinity reservoirs due to their chemical and thermal degradation. In this study, a new copolymer-based gel system including high molecular weight nanostructured polymers (NSPs) was developed to address the excessive water production problem in reservoirs under harsh conditions. The stability of conventional polymer systems and NSPs was investigated under conditions of 40 days aging at 87000 ppm salinity and 90 °C. Then, gelation time optimization of gel systems composed of NSPs and chromium (III) acetate was performed with regards to the effect of copolymer concentration and copolymer/cross-linker ratio and their interactions during the gelation time. The central composite approach was used to design experiments and build a mathematical model. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to estimate the deviation of the model predictions from the data. The results of stability analysis demonstrated the advantages of NSPs over conventional polymers by a viscosity reduction of 69, 36, and 18% for Flopaam3310, AN105, and NSPs respectively. The model developed for the prediction of gelation time of NSPs gel was significant at a confidence level of 98.6% against the test data. Moreover, it was found that gelation time became longer with a decrease in copolymer concentrations and/or increase in copolymer/cross-linker ratio.


Main Subjects


Alhashim, H. W., Wang, J., Alsofi, A. M., and Kaidar, Z. F., Gelation Time Optimization of an Organically Crosslinked Polyacrylamide Gel System for In-depth Fluid Diversion Applications, SPE 190372, SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia, Muscat, Oman, March 26–28, 2018.
Al-Anazi, M. S., Al-Mutairi, S. H., Al-Khaldi, M. H., Al-Zahrani, A. A., and Al-Yami, I. S., Laboratory Evaluation of Organic Water Shutoff Gelling System for Carbonate Formations, SPE 144082, SPE European Formation Damage Conference, Noordwijk, Netherlands, June 7–-10, 2011.
Al-Muntasheri, G. A., Nasr-El-Din, H. A., and Zitha, P. L. J., Gelation Kinetics and Performance Evaluation of an Organically Crosslinked Gel at High Temperature and Pressure, SPE Journal, Vol. 13, No. 03, p. 337–345, 2008.
Badday, A. S., Abdullah A. Z., and Lee K. T., Optimization of Biodiesel Production Process from Jatropha Oil Using Supported Hetero-polyacid Catalyst and Assisted by Ultrasonic Energy, Renewable Energy, Vol. 50, p. 427–432, 2013.
Bai, Y., Xiong, C., Wei, F., Li, J., Shu, Y. and Liu, D., Gelation Study on a Hydrophobically Associating Polymer/Polyethylenimine Gel System for Water Shutoff Treatment, Energy and Fuels, Vol. 29, No. 2, p. 447–458, 2015.
Cozic, C., Rousseau, D., and Tabary, R., Novel Insights into Microgel Systems for Water Control, SPE 115974, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, USA, September 21–24, 2008.
Danmaliki, G. I., Saleh T. A., and Shamsuddeen, A. A., Response Surface Methodology Optimization of Adsorptive Desulfurization on Nickel/Activated Carbon, Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 313, p. 993–1003, 2017.
Elkarsani, K. S. M., Al-Muntasheri, G. A., Sultan, A. S., and Hussein, I. A., Performance of PAM/PEI Gel System for Water Shutoff in High Temperature Reservoirs: Laboratory Study, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 132, No. 17, p. 1–10, 2015.
Feng, Y., Tabary, R., Renard, M., Bon, C., Omari, A., and Chauveteau, G., Characteristics of Microgels Designed for Water Shutoff and Profile Control, SPE 80203, SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, Texas, USA, February 5–7, 2003.
Frampton, H., Morgan, J., Cheung, S., Chang, K., and Williams, D., Development of a Novel Waterflood Conformance Control System, SPE 89391, SPE/DOE Fourteenth Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, April 17–21, 2004.
Hardy, M., Botermans, W., Hamouda, A., Valdal, J., and Warren, J., The First Carbonate Field Application of a New Organically Crosslinked Water Shutoff Polymer System, SPE 50738, SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, Texas, USA, 16–19 February, 1999.
Hosseini, S. A., Nouri, S. Hashemi, S., and Akbari, M., Investigation of Performance of Ni/Clinoptilolite Nanoadsorbents in Desulfurization of Gas Oil: Experimental Design and Modeling, Iranian Journal of Oil and Gas Science and Technology, Vol. 6, No. 1, p. 13–25, 2017.
James, P., Frampton, H., Brinkman, J., Cheung, S., Morgan, J., Chang, K., Williams, D., and Goodgame, J., Field Application of a New In-depth Waterflood Conformance Improvement Tool, SPE 84897, SPE International Improved Oil Recovery Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, October 20–21, 2003.
Jayakumar, S. and Lane, R. H., Delayed Crosslink Polymer Gel System for Water Shutoff in Conventional and Unconventional Oil and Gas Reservoirs, SPE 164046, SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Woodlands, Texas, USA, April 8–10, 2013.
Li, J., Liu, Y., Na, Z., Zeng, Z., and Jiang, H., Investigation on the Adaptability of the Polymer Microspheres for Fluid Flow Diversion in Porous Media, Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, Vol. 35, No. 1, p. 120–129, 2014.
Pham, L.T. and Hatzignatiou, D. G., Rheological Evaluation of a Sodium Silicate Gel System for Water Management in Mature Naturally-fractured Oil Fields, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Vol. 138, p. 218–233, 2016.
Prud'homme, R. K., Jonathan, U., Poinsatte, J. P., and Halverson, F., Rheological Monitoring of the Formation of Polyacrylamide/Cr

Gels, SPE Journal, Vol. 23, No. 5, p. 804–808, 1983.
Sengupta, B., Sharma, V. P., and Udayabhanu, G., Gelation Studies of an Organically Cross-linked Polyacrylamide Water Shutoff Gel System at Different Temperatures and pH, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Vol. 81, p. 145–150, 2012.
Sydansk, R. D. and Perry, A., Conformance Improvement in a Subterranean Hydrocarbon-bearing Formation Using a Polymer gel. U.S. Patent, S/N 4,683,949, Filed August 4, 1987.
Yao, C., Lei, G., Gao, X., and Li, L., Controllable Preparation, Rheology, and Plugging Property of Micron‐grade Polyacrylamide Microspheres as a Novel Profile Control and Flooding Agent, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 130, No. 2, p. 1124–1130, 2013.
Zhao, G., Dai, C., Chen, A., Yan, Z., and Zhao, M., Experimental Study and Application of Gels Formed by Nonionic Polyacrylamide and Phenolic Resin for In-depth Profile Control, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, Vol. 135, p. 552–560, 2015.